Human Resource Management Introduction

What is Human Resource Management?

There are many definitions of what human resource management is or should be. But there is not even a single definition that actually can properly define what HRM exactly is.

In simple words we can say that HRM is the process of employing the people. And train them, compensating them, developing policies related to them. And developing strategies to retain them and to provide a better environment to work them effectively.

Human Resource Management Meaning

The human resource management refers to a process that consists of activities such as acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources. HRM is also responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organization.

There is no best way and procedure to manage people. And it is very difficult task for a manager to predict how employees can be managed because managing people is not a straight forward task.

People are complex beings and have complex needs. In fact, effective personnel management very much depends on the best and effective conditions that an organization would provide to the people.

Human Resource Management Definitions by Authors

  • Scott, clothier, and Spriegel have defined HRM as that branch of management which is responsible on a staff basis for concentrating on those aspects of operations. Which are primarily concerned with the relationship of management to employees and employees to employees and with the development of the individual and the group.
  • Northcott, considers HRM as an extension of general management. And it promotes and stimulates every employee to make his fullest contribution to the business. HRM is not something that could be separated from the basic managerial function. It is a major component of the broader managerial function.
  • French Wendell, defines “HRM as the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization.
  • According to Edwin B. Flippo, “HRM is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and social objectives are accomplished”.

Human Resource Management Activities

  1. Job analysis and job design.
  2. Recruitment and selection of the employees.
  3. Training and development of the employees.
  4. Performance management.
  5. Compensation and benefits.
  6. Safety and wellness related to employees.
  7. Employee motivation.
  8. Organization development.
  9. Labor relations.
  10. Managerial relations.

Human Resource Management Objectives

The objectives of Personnel Management in an organization is to obtain optimum individual development, sound working relationships between employer and employee and employee and employee.

  • To ensure effective utilization of human resources.
  • To establish and maintain a sound relationship among all the members of an organization.
  • To generate the maximum development of human resources within the organization by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and development programs.
  • To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals by offering them various monetary and non-monetary rewards.
  • To ensure the best development of the policies for the employees of the organization who are from a variety of backgrounds in the workforce.

Human resource management Process

There are many activities through which human resource management performs its process of operation which may be as;

  • Human resource planning, i.e., determining the number and types of personnel required to fill various positions in the organization.
  • Recruitment and selection of the personnel for the various post in the organization according to the job specification.
  • Training and development of the employees for their efficient performance and growth.
  • Performance management i.e., to provide an appraisal of performance to employees and taking proper steps such as transfer from one job to another.
  • Remuneration of employees. The employees should be given adequate wages and salaries to obtain a higher standard of living and also motivate them to perform well to achieve higher productivity.
  • Motivation of employees by providing financial incentives and bonuses.
  • Social security and welfare of employees.

Human Resource Management Importance

  • It helps management to prepare, adapt, and continue the evolution of personnel programs and policies.
  • It supplies skilled workers through a scientific selection process.
  • It ensures maximum benefit out of the expenditure on training and development programs held for the employees to improve their skills to get the organizational objective more efficiently.
  • It improve and modify the skills of workers according to the changing needs of organization and environment.
  • It motivates workers and upgrade them to make them enable to accomplish the organizational goals.
  • It contributes a lot to obtain the industrial solidarity and healthy employer employee relations within the organization.
  • It helps in maintaining the sound relationship among all the managers of different departments in the organization.

Human Resource Management Functions

There are many human resource management role and human resource management responsibilities towards the organization. Some of the human resource management functions are;

Human resource management functions

Managerial Functions

The managerial function includes activities like planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling the employees. However, they are performed by all types of  managers including human resource managers.


Planning is a fundamental function of  HRM. It involves the decision taken in advance about the future work of the organization.

In this process some decision are taken about the work, such as what are the works we have to perform, the right time and right place to perform, the process how to perform that works, and who will perform that wok.

In planning, a manager research some course of action to achieve the desired objectives of the organization in future and make the planning accordingly.

A plan is a predetermined course of action to accomplish the set objectives, it specifies what and how operative personnel functions are to be performed to achieve the desired objective of the organization in the future.


Organizing calls for grouping of personnel activities, assignments of different activities to different individuals. It is used in the sense of an enterprise or a business unit.

In an operational sense, organizing may be considered as consisting of division of work among people and coordination of their activities towards some objectives.


It is the managerial function consisting of all those activities which are concerned directly with guiding, influencing, and supervising the subordinates in their job.

Some elements of the directing function of  HRM are;

(a) Supervising the work of subordinates to ensure that their performance conforms to the plan.

(b) Maintaining discipline and rewarding effective performance.

(c) Issuing orders and instructions.

(d) Motivating the subordinate to direct their behavior in a desired pattern.


It is concerned with harmonious and unified action directed towards common objectives. Communication with each other is very important and effective for the organization.

It ensures that all the employees perform their work more efficiently with the optimum utilization of resources and with happy working environment in the organization.


It is a function of management which measures and corrects the performance of subordinates to make sure that the organizational objectives and plans made to achieve them are accomplished.

Control thus consists in knowing the extent to which actions conform with plans adopted and instructions issued so that errors and deviations are reported and appropriate corrective action taken.

Operative Functions

Operative functions of human resource management


Procurement is the process of recruiting the expected number of employees with the desired qualification and experience which is required for an organization to achieve its objectives.

In fact, it is mainly concerned with hiring the right people, in the right place, at the right time. It is concerned with the obtaining of the proper kind and number of personnel necessary to accomplish necessary organizational goals.


Development is a process of activities performed such as training, seminars, skill development program, group discussion, and education etc in order to increase the efficiency and skills of the workers.

Therefore through development, the skills and efficiency of the employees are improved and these results in the better job performance which is necessary for the organization.

Development function will be influenced by numerous factors like the induction of new machines, promotions, and transfers.


This function can be defined as the adequate and equitable remuneration of personnel for their contributions to the organisation objectives. Compensation remains one of the basic functions of personnel management.

A proper wage system takes into consideration several factors subjects like job evaluation, wage policies, wage system, and wage incentive schemes.


It can be defined as an attempt to effect a reasonable reconciliation of individual and organizational interests. So, functions of procurement, development and compensation must be followed by integration. The function of integration relates to the problem of communication, informal organization, and trade unions.


Maintenance refers to sustaining and improving the conditions that have been established. This would thus include the above functions. However, it must be pointed out that it would be necessary to take care of the physical and mental well being of the employees.

To fulfill this objective, it is important that research must continue to every direction so that the function of maintenance is performed effectively. Maintaining aims at maintaining good working conditions for the employees. It includes the preparation and implementation of health schemes, safety systems etc.


Therefore, the role of HRM is very important in an organization. Personnel management is the key to the whole organization and it is related to all various activities of the management occurred in all the departments such as marketing, production, and finance, etc.

And, Human resource management concept involves a system to be followed in a business firm to recruit, select, hire, train, develop, and optimum utilization of human assets. Therefore, proper coordination of human efforts, effective utilization of human and other material resources is necessary.