Types of Training and Development Methods
There are several training and development methods available. The use of a particular method depends upon the criteria which accomplishes training needs and objectives.
There are various training and development programs which are held in the organization to train the employees according to nature of their jobs. Training and development methods are classified into two categories;
I. On-the-job Methods
On the job method is the heart and soul of all training in any organization. It is the most universal form of employee development.
It is traditional mode of training which is designed to enhance the knowledge and learning of employees to perform their job properly under the guidance and supervision of trained instructor.
Job instruction training;
This technique of training was developed during the world war II. It is basically used to teach the workers how to perform their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor and co-worker can act as a coach.
It is continuous learning process by doing. Coaching involves direct instruction, guidance, extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction.
It is a kind of the daily training and feedback is given to employees immediately by their coach or supervisor.
In this method, a senior person in the organization takes the responsibility of training as well as grooming of a junior.
A mentor acts as a teacher, guide, counselor, philosopher, and facilitator of the juniors.
Whenever any problem arises to juniors to perform their work than mentor helps them to overcome to that problem through his experience and fine sense of opinion.
Position rotations training is broadening of the background of the trainees in the organization.
Through job rotation method a employee understand the larger perspective and different functional areas of the organization.
This method of training give the chance to the trainees to work on some projects related with departmental objectives.
Through this method the trainees will acquire the knowledge about the assigned work and also learn how to work with others.
In this, the trainees become the members of the committee in the organization. The committee assigned a problem to discuss and make recommendations according to that.
II. Off-the-job Methods
Another part of training and development methods is off the job method. In this method the trainees have to leave their jobs and workplaces to learn and acquire knowledge related to their work which will enhance their working abilities.
Special courses and lectures;
Being a traditional method it is most popular method of developing personnel even today. These types of courses and lectures are designed to enhance and improve the knowledge of the trainees.
These courses and lectures are designed by any management or professional school.
Companies sponsor their trainees to attend these courses or lectures. This the most easy and quick way to provide knowledge to a large group of trainees.
Conferences and Seminars;
In this method, the participants have to share their ideas, suggestions, thoughts, viewpoints and recommendations.
When the trainees attend conference and seminars, they will observe a problem from different angles because the participants are from different fields and sectors.
This is the self improvement training technique. The Trainees obtain required knowledge and awareness by reading various business journals and magazines.
Most of the companies have their own libraries. The employees become the members of the professional associations to have awareness of latest development in their respective fields.
Case study method;
In this method, trainees used to analyze the situation/problem faced by a company in the past. Companies have the record of these situation and their solution in a written form.
These types of cases are provided to the trainees where they analyze and discuss the situations/problems and their solution.
The main aim of this method is to identify and diagnose the problem. The participants can suggest the alternate course of action according to them.
This is step by step self learning method where the medium may be a text book, computer or the internet.
This is a systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond and giving the immediate feedback to his/her answers.
This is creativity training technique, it helps people to solve problems in new and different ways.
In this technique, the trainees are given the opportunity to generate ideas openly and without any fear of judgment.
Once a lot ideas are generated then they are evaluated for their cost and feasibility.
In this method, a role of is assigned to the trainees in which they have to play a role of another person in an artificially created situation.
For example, a trainee is asked to play the role of a trade union leader and another trainee is required to perform a role of a HR manager.
Through this technique the trainees can understanding each other’s situation in better way by analyzing their work and problems faced by them.
Well established organization provide training center to the trainees within the organization in which the trainees are given some particular training according to the nature of their job.
A vestibule school is a training center operated by the personnel department. It is a training center produced to deliver the training to new employees in the organization according to the job requirements which are assigned to them.
This is a saying that this type of training method started in the middle ages. That time, the people used to work under the guidance of a master craftsman in order to learn and enhance the trade skills.
In apprenticeship training the people improve the skills and become skilled workers through training and classroom instructions given to them.
In this technique, some memos, directives, e-mails, requests, reports, messages, hand written notes, etc., are given to the trainees by the management, staff members, supervisors and other stakeholders.
Then the trainee task is to review these in basket items, analyze the problem and then take action according to the situation. After taking the action a final report is made in the form of record notes, comments and responses.
Business games involves teams of trainees. The teams discuss and analyze the problem and arrive at decision. In this method, the issues which are related to the sales, inventories, research & development, production, etc are taken up for consideration.
This is a approach where trainee used to learn special supervisory skill. This is based on the social learning theory in which the trainee can learn new behavior by observing.
In this method the trainee is provided with a special model of behavior and also informed in advance of the consequences of engaging in that type of behavior.
Sensitivity (T-group) Training;
In this type of training, a small group of trainees consisting 10 to 12 persons is formed which meets in an unstructured situation. There is no set agenda or plan.
The main objective of this training are openness with each other, enhance listening skills, trust, support, tolerance, concern and help for others. The trainers serve a catalytic role.
The group formed in this method meets in segregation without any formal agenda. And there is a great focus on inter personal behavior. And then trainers provide honest feedback to members about their interaction with each other.
McCormick, president of McCormick & co. of Baltimore introduced the multiple management method of training in 1932. He presented the thought of organize a junior board of directors.
Authority is given to the junior board members to discuss any problem that could be discuss in senior board and give recommendations to senior board. Innovative and productive ideas became available for senior board.