Training and Development

Training and Development Introduction

What is Training and Development?

Training and Development is a continuous process of skill development of the employees working for any organization in accordance with changing environment. It is a core function of the human resource management.

Training and development of employees is the process of obtaining quality output from employees. It is the most common and continuous task performed in almost every organization for updating skills and knowledge of employees.

Training and development for employees is essential because it improves their working skills, enhance knowledge and ability to perform their task effectively which results in the long running success of the organization.

Training and Development Meaning

Training and development in HRM is simply an organised process for enhancing the skills and knowledge of people for performing a particular job. It is a learning process involving the gaining and enhancing of skills and attitudes.

Training is continuous process because a person never stops learning. The purpose of training is to improve the current performance and to mold the behavior of people so that they can perform their jobs in a better way.

Development means growth of employees in all aspects which includes education, learning and training. The level of development of the employees is higher which concerns with the senior managers.

Training Definitions

  • According to Dale. S. Beach, “Training is a organised procedure in which people working for any firm learn knowledge and skill for definite purpose”.
  • According to Jucius, “Training term used here indicates only process by which the abilities, skills and aptitudes of employees are increased to perform specific jobs”.
  • According to Elppo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

Training and Development Importance

There are various benefits of training and development to employees as well as the employers/organization. Some important training and development advantages are;

Training and Development Benefits to Employers

  • Increased Productivity. Increase in the skills of the employees, usually enhances quality and quantity output. Training increases the skills and efficiency of the employees for doing the job in a effective manner which results in the increment of the productivity.
  • Reduced Supervision. when the employees are well trained for their jobs than they can perform better even in the limited supervision.
  • Reduced Accidents. According to the survey, maximum accidents are caused due to the deficiencies in the skills of the people than the deficiencies in the working conditions. So proper training of employees reduces the chances of any accident.
  • Ensures flexibility and stability. Continuous and timely training of the employees make the organization more competent and enables it to overcome shortages of skilled personnel.
  • Economy in Operation. It is a well known fact trained personnel are capable of doing their tasks with care and caution. The wastage of time, energy, and materials is minimized and cost of production is reduced.

Training and Development Benefits for the Employees

  • Increase in morale of employees. Training enhances the morale of the employees by relating their skill with the job requirements. Training builds the confidence in the employees and they see their jobs in more meaningful ways.
  • More employment opportunities. A trained employee gets more employment opportunities as compared to untrained employee because every firm wants the trained and capable employees.
  • More adaptability. As the trained employee can better understand the nature of his job. And he can adapt the changes which are introduced in the working environment due to the changes in the market conditions.
  • Compensates incomplete education. At the time of joining the organization the employees have only theoretical knowledge about the work and training provides the practical knowledge to them, which makes the employee more efficient.
  • More chances of promotion. Training enhances the knowledge and skills of the employees which results in the more chances of promotion because the employees who have more knowledge and skills are considered more efficient as compared to employees who have less knowledge and skills.

Training and development Objectives

  • To increase productivity.
  • To develop first line supervisors to become a most effective mode of management.
  • To bring out more cordial relations, i.e. employee and employer relations.
  • To enhance morale of the employees and team spirit of the workers.
  • To enhance co-operation and co-ordination effectively at all levels.
  • To impact various social and supervisory skills.
  • To develop the people for higher performance by utilizing the knowledge, experience and inherent abilities.
  • To enhance knowledge and optimum use of resources.

Need of Training

Training acts as the bridges which connect the gap between the job requirements and employee’s present capabilities. Every organization should provide training to its workforce due to the technological changes and automation.

There is a need of training due to the following reason;

New Environment;

When a new employee comes to work he is unaware about the environment of the organization. Therefore, he should be given some training to make him familiar with his co-workers, superiors and company’s rules and regulation etc.

Such training is known as induction or orientation. It enables the new employee to obtain self confidence and to make him adjustable with the new environment. Training makes the new employees efficient.

Faculty Methods;

Due to lack of training some employees use inappropriate ways of doing work which will definitely result in wastage and inefficiency. Training is required to remove these defects.

This type of training may be called remedial training to employees which teaches them correct methods and behavior patterns.

Prevention of Accidents;

Training is needed to prevent industrial accidents. For this purpose, safety conscious must be created among the employees so that they realize the significance of safe working.

Moreover, they should be given instructions in the use of safety devices. Such training is known as safety training.

Career Development;

When persons working at lower levels are promoted to higher positions, they require training in the higher job. This is necessary to provide opportunity for advancements to the employees.

Such training may be described as promotional training. It simplifies the problem of executive succession and helps to ensure the continuity of the organization.

Types of Training

1. Vestibule Training;

This term is used to designate training in classroom for skilled production and clerical jobs. Under this method employees are trained in a special training center (vestibule) within the plant.

Training and development of employees

In vestibule training a working environment is created as like the actual work conditions of the work place. Then some qualified and trained instructors provide the training to the people carefully under the well planned and controlled learning conditions.

2. Apprenticeship Training;

In this method the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for a long period and some stipend is paid to them during the training period.

Trainees are imparted knowledge and skill in doing a particular crafts or a series of related job.

3. Job Rotation;

In this method the trainee moves from one job place to another, so that he can know to work on all the seats. This type of training is common for the employees of general management positions.

Under this method trainee understand the problems of the other seats while working on that seats. Such movement may be for the period ranging from 6 months to 2 years before a person is established in a particular job.

4. Internship Training;

This training basically helps to create the balance between the theoretical knowledge and the practical skills required to perform a particular job. It is combined effort of the educational institutions and business organizations.

In this method the theoretical knowledge is imparted by educational institutions and practical knowledge is imparted through business organizations.

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Human Resource Planning Process

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Training and development Process

Recruitment and Selection

What is Recruitment and Selection?

Recruitment and Selection is the process of defining the requirements of the job vacancy, describing the essential need of the vacancy and the job holders, advertising for the required job position and picking the most desirable and suitable person for the job.

As human resources are very important for the achieving the organization goal and success. If the organization does not recruit or select the appropriate candidates for the required jobs than it can bear the lose in the future.

So, recruitment and selection of the right person for the right job is the key to success for any organization


Recruitment Meaning

Recruitment is a process of searching and attracting effective job seekers for employment. Recruitment of candidates is a function which takes place before the process of the selection, which helps to create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can choose the right person for the right job from this selected list.

Recruitment Definitions by Authors

According to Dalton E. Mc. Farland, ” The term recruitment applies to the process of attracting potential employees to the company”.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, ” Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”.

Recruitment Needs

Planned. i.e. the needs arising from changes in the organization and retirement policy.

Anticipated. i.e. these needs are those activities, which an organization can predict by analyzing trends in internal and external environment.

Unexpected. i.e. resignation, deaths, accidents, illness, etc. give rise to unexpected needs.

After recruitment process is done than immediately selection process starts i.e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.

Recruitment Sources

Every organization has the option to choose the candidates for recruitment process from two types of recruitment: internal and external sources.

The sources which take place within the organization (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions, etc) to fill a desired position are known as internal sources of recruitment.

Recruiting candidates from all other sources which take place outside the organization (like outsourcing agencies etc) are known as external sources of recruitment.

Internal Sources of Recruitment
  • Transfers. According to the need the employees are transferred within the organization from one department to another according to their knowledge and experience.
  • Promotions. Some employees are promoted in the organization with more benefits and greater responsibilities based on their skills and experience.
  • Upgrading and Demotion of current employees in the organization according to their work performance.
  • Any time if there is a need than some Retired and Retrenched employees can also be recruited again if there is shortage of skilled and qualified people or increase in load of work. This type of recruitment saves time and costs of the organization as these people are already aware about the organizational culture, policies and procedures.
  • Many companies also recruit some dependents and relatives of Deceased and Disabled employees so that the family members of these employees do not become dependent on others.
External Sources of Recruitment
  • Press Advertisement. Advertisement of the vacancies in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. It is a widely reached method in a short span of time.
  • Educational Institutes. Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical colleges, etc are good source of recruiting the best talent. They provide the facilities for interviews and placements in the campus and due to which it is known as campus recruitment.
  • Placement Agencies. There are many private consultancy firms who perform recruitment for their client companies by charging a fee. It is known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing).
  • Employment Exchanges. Government organizes public employment exchange program throughout the country. They provide information about the job to the job seekers and help the employers to identifying desired candidates.
  • Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain contacts with the sources of such workers. The labor for the construction jobs are recruited through this method.
  • Unsolicited Applicants. Many job seekers visit the office of some reputed companies for the job by their own. This can help in creating the talent pool or to get the desirable candidate for the job.
  • Employee Referrals / Recommendation. In many organization there is a system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends, family members and relatives for some positions in their organization.
  • Recruitment at Factory Gate. Some workers are recruited at the factory gate and this type of workers are unskilled workers who are employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. And some of them may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies according to their efficiency and skills.
  • Internships. In this process various students got a chance to gain and obtain a valuable work experience working with the organization. In this way the organization can also get the candidates who will be suitable for the various vacant posts in the organization.
  • E-Recruitment. It is also known as online recruitment as it is the process of finding and hiring the suitable and desired candidates for the vacant job positions through internet. Nowadays, almost every organization make use of the internet to reach a large number of job seekers and hire the best talent for the company.


Selection Meaning

Selection is the process by which candidates for employment are distinguished between those who are suitable for the position and those who are not.

When the process of selection is done than the organization gets the most suitable persons who possess the ability, qualifications and skills to perform on the required posts for which they are selected.

recruitment and selection of employees

In a selection process more candidates are rejected and less of them are selected, so it can also be called rejection. This is the reason why selection is called a negative process.

Selection Definitions by Authors

According to Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes, those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”.

According to Terry, “Selection involves a series of steps by which candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant jobs in the organization”.

Difference between Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and Selection in Human Resource Management can be distinguished as follows;

MeaningSearching candidates to
apply for particular job.
It is appointing the employees
on the right job.
NatureIt is positive process.It is negative process.
AimTo attract more and more
candidates for the vacant job.
To reject unsuitable candidate
and select suitable candidate
for the job.
ContractNo contractual relation is
Contractual relation is created
in the selection process.
SequenceIt precedes the selection.It follows the recruitment
ProcessIt is simple process.It is complicated process.
EconomyIt is economical.It is expensive.
TimeIt is less time consuming.It is more time consuming.

Related Posts;

Recruitment and Selection Process

Human resource planning

Training and Development


The success of any organization depends upon its employees. If the organization has optimum and perfect employees than the organization will enjoy the benefits of its unbeatable success.

Recruitment and Selection help the organization to choose the right candidate for the right job. And it helps in reducing the losses of any organization.

Human Resource Planning

Planning is very vital function to our everyday activities in every field and every type of work. Human resource planning is also a important and valuable part of  human resource management.

Several definitions have been given by different writers that what human resource planning is all about and it’s importance to achieve the organizational goals. Organization that do not plan for future have less opportunities to survive the competition ahead.

What is Human Resource Planning?

Human resource planning may be defined as strategy for acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of the human resources in the organisation. The objective of HRP is to provide the right personnel for the right work and optimum utilization of existing human resource.

The major activities of HRP include: forecasting (future requirements), inventorying (present strength), anticipating (comparison of present and future requirements), and planning (necessary programs to meet future requirements).

HRP involves the gathering of information, making objectives, and making decision to enable the organization to achieve it’s goals and objectives.

Surprisingly, this aspect of HR is one of the most neglected aspects in human resource management field. HRP is a function which is applied accurately in the field of  Human resource management in order to reply the answers to the following questions.

  1. How much strength of staff does the organization have?
  2. What types of skills and abilities the employees have in the organization?
  3. What are the functions required by an organization for the optimum utilization of  the available human resources?
  4. How can the organization improve the skills and working conditions of the employees?
  5. How can the organisation satisfy the needs of employees?

HRP Definitions

According to Dale S. Beach, “HRP is defined as a process of determining and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at the required times, performing jobs which meet the requirements of the enterprise and which provide satisfaction for the individuals involved”.

According to International Labor Organisation, “HRP is the process by which management ensures that it has the right personnel, who who are capable of performing those tasks which helps the organization to achieve its objectives. It involves the forecasting of human resources needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies”.

According to Jeisler, Manpower planning is the process which includes forecasting, developing and controlling – through which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people, the right kind of people, and at the right places at the same time doing things for which they are economically most useful”

According to R. Wayne Monday’s in Human Resource Management, Human resource planning is the systematic process of matching the internal and external supply of candidates with job openings that a company anticipates over a certain period of time. Put simply, human resource planning is keeping an up to date compilation of candidates inside and outside the company for future positions”.

According to Coleman, “Manpower planning is the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organisation”.

Human Resource Planning Objectives

  • Recruit and maintain human resource optimally.
  • To meet the requirements of the programs of expansion, diversification etc.
  • Supply control measure criteria to assure required availability of human resources at given time.
  • To expect the effect of technology on work, present employees and future human resource requirements.
  • Advancement of  knowledge, skill, ability, and discipline etc.
  • Estimate the excess or shortage of human resources and proceed accordingly.
  •  Maintain pleasant industrial relations by maintaining optimum level of human resources.
  • Minimize imbalances caused due to non availability of personnel of right kind, right number in right time and right place.
  • Making the optimum utilization of human resources.
  • Estimate the cost of human resources.
Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning

Therefore, human resource planning is required to achieve the objectives of estimating efficient human resources requirements; to meet changing requirements of the organisation with changing technology. And to make full utilization of existing and potential workforce of the organisation.

Human Resource Planning Importance

Fulfill the requirements of the organization

To do work in an organization, every organization needs personnel of desired skill, knowledge, and experience. This human resource requirement of organisation can be effectively fulfilled through proper human resource planning.

It helps in determine the number of human resources required and the type of human resource required to fulfill its needs.

Checking labor disequilibrium

Manpower planning helps to anticipate shortages and/or surpluses of manpower in the organisation. Both the situations are not good for the organization.

In case of shortage of human resources, the physical resources of the organization can not be properly utilized. And, in case of surplus of human resources, these resources may remain under unused.

Therefore, human resource planning helps in correcting this imbalance before it become expensive and unmanageable.

Counterbalance insecurity and changes

There should be proper utilization of human and non human resources in the organization. Sometimes the organization may have adequate non human resource such as machines, materials, and money but due to inadequate human resources the manufacturing and production process of the organisation cannot be started.

Therefore, human resource planning helps to offset uncertainties and changes as far as possible. And it enables to ensure availability of right human resources at right time and right place.

Fulfill the personnel requirements of the organisation

As in the existing organization, some posts may fall vacant due to retirements, resignations, promotions, accidents, and death of the employees.

Hence, there is a constant need of replacing the people or filling the vacant places with better options.

Therefore, human resource planning estimates the future requirements of the organization and helps to get human resources of right kind, right number, in right time, and right place.

Expansion, diversification, and modernization of the organization

It helps to execute future plans to meet expansion, modernization, and diversification needs of the organization.

Manpower planning ensures that organization has the proper kind of human resources available to meet these needs when required.

It ensures that organization has personnel of desired skills and knowledge available to handle the challenging job requirements.

Training and development of the employees

As a result of changing requirements of the organization due to globalization and the changing technologies day by day, there is a constant need of training and development of the employees.

It improves the skills and provide advancement of employees. Thus, it helps in meeting the future needs of the organization through highly skilled employees.

Fulfill individual needs of employees

It helps to satisfy the individual needs of employees for promotion, transfer, salary encashment, better benefits etc.

Helps in formulation of budgets

It helps in anticipating the cost of human resources such as salary and other benefits etc. It facilitates the formulation of human resource budget various departments or divisions of the organisation. So, it may help in, formulating the suitable budgets for an organization.

To check unemployment

It the method of right sizing of employees by the organization, some of the employees may become surplus. It means that the organization does not require their service now.

It tries to foresee the need of redundancy. It plans to check job loss or to provide for alternative employment in consultation with various concerned parties and authorities.


Human Resource planning is very important part of human resource management and very beneficial for an organization. As the human resource planning is the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to desired manpower position.

Therefore, through human resource planning the management strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people at the right places, at the right time, to perform things which results in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long run benefits.

Job Analysis

What is Job Analysis?

Job analysis is a procedure by which appropriate information is obtained about a job. It is a detailed and systematic information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.

A Job analysis determines the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required for the workers to perform different tasks effectively which is a important part of human resource management.

Information Provided by Job Analysis

Job Identification:

Provide the information about title of the job including its code number.

Valuable characteristics of a job:

Location of the job, physical setting of the job, supervision, union jurisdiction, risks and inconvenience.

Materials and equipment a worker uses:

Metals, plastics, grains, yarns, milling machines, punch presses and micrometer etc.

Procedure to perform a job:

Nature of work like lifting, handling, cleaning, washing, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, setting-up, and many others.

Required personal attributes:

Experience, skills, training, apprenticeship, physical strength, mental capabilities, and social skills.

Job relationship:

Experience required, opportunities for advancement & development, pattern of promotion, essential co-operation, direction, or leadership for a job.

Sources of Information for Job Analysis

Information about a job may be identified through three principal sources.

  • From the employees who perform a job.
  • From other employees such as supervisors and foremen who observe the workers doing a job and thereby acquire knowledge about it.
  • From the outside observers specially appointed to watch and observe employees performing a job. Such outsider observers are called trade job analysts.

Job Analysis Purpose

Job analysis purpose
A comprehensive job analysis program is an essential ingredient of a sound personnel management.

Organization and manpower planning:

It is helpful in organization planning to define labor needs, co-ordinate the activities of the workforce, and divides duties and responsibilities.

Recruitment and selection:

It helps in determining characteristics of person required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience, technical, physical, emotional, and personal skills required to carry out a job in a desired manner. The objective is to fit the right person in the right place.

Wages and salary administration:

By indicating the qualification required for a specific job and the risks and hazards involved in its performance, it helps in salary and wages administration. Job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages, extra perks, benefits, fixed, and variable incentives of employees.

Employee training and management development:

IT provides the necessary information to the management about the training and development programs. It helps it to determine the training content, subject matter, training tools, and equipment to be used to conduct training and method of training.

Performance Analysis:

It is done to check if the goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standard and evaluation criteria. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she appraised accordingly.

Job designing and redesigning:

The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human effort and to get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating, and also cutting back & adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. It is performed  to increase the employee satisfaction while enhancing the human output.

Health and safety:

It provides an opportunity for identifying hazardous conditions and unhealthy environmental factors, so that corrective measures may be taken to minimize and avoid the possibilities of accidents.

Job Analysis Process

Job analysis process

Identification of job analysis purpose:

Every process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Hence, the first step in the process of job analysis is to determine its requirements and desired output.

The Person who will conduct job analysis:

Another most important step involved in this process is to decide about the fellow to conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their HR department while some hire job analysis consultants.

How to conduct process:

The next step in the job this process is to decide how it is to be conducted. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required to investigate a specific job.

Strategic decision making:

Further step is to decide the limitation of employee involvement in the process, the scale of details to be collected, sources from where the data is to be collected, method of data collection, processing of information, and segregation of collected data.

Training of job analyst:

Next step in this process is to train the job analyst about conducting the process and use the selected methods for the collection and recording of job data.

Preparation of job analysis process:

Next step of this process is to Communicate it within the organization. Its a duty of HR managers that they should communicate the whole thing effectively so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. This stage involves the preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews, and feedback forms.

Collecting job data:

Next step in the process is to collect the data about the job including educational qualifications, skills, abilities of employees required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, employee behavior, duties, and responsibilities involved.

Documentation, verification, and review:

Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of the collected data and then review it. It is the last information that is used to describe a specific job.

Developing job description and job specification:

Now its time to segregate the collected data into useful information. Job description describes the roles, activities, duties, and responsibilities of the job while job specification is the statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job.

Job Analysis Methods

Observation Method

In this method, a job analyzer analyses an employee and the records of all his performed and unperformed tasks, fulfilled and unfulfilled responsibilities & duties, various methods & skills used by an employee to perform various duties, employee intellectual or emotional ability to overcome the challenges and risks.

However, it seems to be one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but the truth is that it is the most difficult one because different people think and interpret the findings in different ways as every person has its way of observing things.

Interview Method

In this method, employees are interviewed to gain the information about their working styles, problems faced by them during job, the use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job, insecurities, and fears about their careers.

This method helps the interviewer to know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her job and responsibilities involved in it.

Questionnaire Method

Another commonly used method is getting the questionnaire filled from employees, their superiors, and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal bias.

Appropriate care should be taken while framing questions for different category of employees. If it is not done effectively, then there will be a full wastage of time, money, and human resources.

Records Methods

The personnel department maintain the records of the facts regarding the job and the jobholders. The analysts collect the information from the records maintained by the personnel department.

The complete information about work and workers cannot be obtained by this technique because certain information such as supervisor-workers relationship, accessories used, and working conditions are not mentioned in that records.

Critical Incident Method

In  this method job holders are asked to describe the incidents concerning the job based on past experiences. The incidents so collected are analyzed and classified according to the job areas described.

These are some common methods used in job analysis. However, there are other specialized methods such as task inventory method, job element method, competency profiling method and technical conference method etc.

But while choosing a method, HR managers need to consider time, cost, and human efforts included in conducting the particular method.

Classification of Job Analysis

types of job analysis

Job Description

Job description is a basic job related data that is useful to advertise a specific job and attract a pool of talent.

It contains information about the job title, job location, job summary, nature of the job, objectives of the job, tasks and duties to be performed, working conditions, machines, tools, and equipment used by the prospective workers and hazards involved in it.

Purpose of Job Description
  • The main purpose of the job description is to collect job-related data to advertise for a particular job. It provide assistance to attract, target, recruit, and select the right person for the right job.
  • It is done to examine the kind of  requirement to be delivered in a particular job. It define the duty and responsibilities of the employees  if they are selected for that particular job opening.
  • It provide recruiting staff a clear idea that what kind of candidate is required by a particular department or division.
  • It also explain which person will report to whom.

Job Specification

A job specification may be defined as a inscribed detail about educational qualifications required for a job, level of experience, physical, technical,  emotional, communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job, etc.

It also includes general physical health, mental health, intelligence, leadership quality, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, etc.

Purpose of Job Specification
  • Described based on the job description, job specification helps candidates to analyze whether they are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.
  • It helps the recruiting team to examine that what type and level of qualifications we actually want, qualities, and set of characteristics present in the candidates to make them eligible for the job opening.
  • Job specification provide specified information about any job including job responsibilities, required technical and physical skills, conversational ability, etc.
  • It also helps in choosing the right candidate for a particular job.

Job Design

What is Job Design?

Job design is may be defined as an attempt to build a match between job requirements and human qualities & skills. Job design is a intentional and systematic approach to structure the technical and social aspects of work to improve technical efficiency and job satisfaction.

The main objective of job design is to connect the requirements of the individual and the requirements of the organization. The needs of employees include job satisfaction in terms of interest, challenges, and achievements.

And organizational requirements and objectives refer to high productivity, technical efficiency, and quality of work. Nowadays educated and creative employees demand well-designed jobs. Therefore, increasing attempts are being made to redesign jobs to improve the quality of working life.


Job analysis and job design are the important parts of human resource management. Through this HR collects the information that which person is suitable for job and what are the requirements to be needed for the job.

Without job analysis human resource management can not come to know that what is the nature of the job and what are the requirements such as knowledge, skills, education, physical ability, mental stability, social background, etc. are needed for the job to achieve the organization objectives.

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management Introduction

What is Human Resource Management?

There are many definitions of what human resource management is or should be. But there is not even a single definition that actually can properly define what HRM exactly is.

In simple words we can say that HRM is the process of employing the people. And train them, compensating them, developing policies related to them. And developing strategies to retain them and to provide a better environment to work them effectively.

Human Resource Management Meaning

The human resource management refers to a process that consists of activities such as acquisition, development, motivation, and maintenance of human resources. HRM is also responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organization.

There is no best way and procedure to manage people. And it is very difficult task for a manager to predict how employees can be managed because managing people is not a straight forward task.

People are complex beings and have complex needs. In fact, effective personnel management very much depends on the best and effective conditions that an organization would provide to the people.

Human Resource Management Definitions by Authors

  • Scott, clothier, and Spriegel have defined HRM as that branch of management which is responsible on a staff basis for concentrating on those aspects of operations. Which are primarily concerned with the relationship of management to employees and employees to employees and with the development of the individual and the group.
  • Northcott, considers HRM as an extension of general management. And it promotes and stimulates every employee to make his fullest contribution to the business. HRM is not something that could be separated from the basic managerial function. It is a major component of the broader managerial function.
  • French Wendell, defines “HRM as the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization.
  • According to Edwin B. Flippo, “HRM is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and social objectives are accomplished”.

Human Resource Management Activities

  1. Job analysis and job design.
  2. Recruitment and selection of the employees.
  3. Training and development of the employees.
  4. Performance management.
  5. Compensation and benefits.
  6. Safety and wellness related to employees.
  7. Employee motivation.
  8. Organization development.
  9. Labor relations.
  10. Managerial relations.

Human Resource Management Objectives

The objectives of Personnel Management in an organization is to obtain optimum individual development, sound working relationships between employer and employee and employee and employee.

  • To ensure effective utilization of human resources.
  • To establish and maintain a sound relationship among all the members of an organization.
  • To generate the maximum development of human resources within the organization by offering opportunities for advancement to employees through training and development programs.
  • To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals by offering them various monetary and non-monetary rewards.
  • To ensure the best development of the policies for the employees of the organization who are from a variety of backgrounds in the workforce.

Human resource management Process

There are many activities through which human resource management performs its process of operation which may be as;

  • Human resource planning, i.e., determining the number and types of personnel required to fill various positions in the organization.
  • Recruitment and selection of the personnel for the various post in the organization according to the job specification.
  • Training and development of the employees for their efficient performance and growth.
  • Performance management i.e., to provide an appraisal of performance to employees and taking proper steps such as transfer from one job to another.
  • Remuneration of employees. The employees should be given adequate wages and salaries to obtain a higher standard of living and also motivate them to perform well to achieve higher productivity.
  • Motivation of employees by providing financial incentives and bonuses.
  • Social security and welfare of employees.

Human Resource Management Importance

  • It helps management to prepare, adapt, and continue the evolution of personnel programs and policies.
  • It supplies skilled workers through a scientific selection process.
  • It ensures maximum benefit out of the expenditure on training and development programs held for the employees to improve their skills to get the organizational objective more efficiently.
  • It improve and modify the skills of workers according to the changing needs of organization and environment.
  • It motivates workers and upgrade them to make them enable to accomplish the organizational goals.
  • It contributes a lot to obtain the industrial solidarity and healthy employer employee relations within the organization.
  • It helps in maintaining the sound relationship among all the managers of different departments in the organization.

Human Resource Management Functions

There are many human resource management role and human resource management responsibilities towards the organization. Some of the human resource management functions are;

Human resource management functions

Managerial Functions

The managerial function includes activities like planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling the employees. However, they are performed by all types of  managers including human resource managers.


Planning is a fundamental function of  HRM. It involves the decision taken in advance about the future work of the organization.

In this process some decision are taken about the work, such as what are the works we have to perform, the right time and right place to perform, the process how to perform that works, and who will perform that wok.

In planning, a manager research some course of action to achieve the desired objectives of the organization in future and make the planning accordingly.

A plan is a predetermined course of action to accomplish the set objectives, it specifies what and how operative personnel functions are to be performed to achieve the desired objective of the organization in the future.


Organizing calls for grouping of personnel activities, assignments of different activities to different individuals. It is used in the sense of an enterprise or a business unit.

In an operational sense, organizing may be considered as consisting of division of work among people and coordination of their activities towards some objectives.


It is the managerial function consisting of all those activities which are concerned directly with guiding, influencing, and supervising the subordinates in their job.

Some elements of the directing function of  HRM are;

(a) Supervising the work of subordinates to ensure that their performance conforms to the plan.

(b) Maintaining discipline and rewarding effective performance.

(c) Issuing orders and instructions.

(d) Motivating the subordinate to direct their behavior in a desired pattern.


It is concerned with harmonious and unified action directed towards common objectives. Communication with each other is very important and effective for the organization.

It ensures that all the employees perform their work more efficiently with the optimum utilization of resources and with happy working environment in the organization.


It is a function of management which measures and corrects the performance of subordinates to make sure that the organizational objectives and plans made to achieve them are accomplished.

Control thus consists in knowing the extent to which actions conform with plans adopted and instructions issued so that errors and deviations are reported and appropriate corrective action taken.

Operative Functions

Operative functions of human resource management


Procurement is the process of recruiting the expected number of employees with the desired qualification and experience which is required for an organization to achieve its objectives.

In fact, it is mainly concerned with hiring the right people, in the right place, at the right time. It is concerned with the obtaining of the proper kind and number of personnel necessary to accomplish necessary organizational goals.


Development is a process of activities performed such as training, seminars, skill development program, group discussion, and education etc in order to increase the efficiency and skills of the workers.

Therefore through development, the skills and efficiency of the employees are improved and these results in the better job performance which is necessary for the organization.

Development function will be influenced by numerous factors like the induction of new machines, promotions, and transfers.


This function can be defined as the adequate and equitable remuneration of personnel for their contributions to the organisation objectives. Compensation remains one of the basic functions of personnel management.

A proper wage system takes into consideration several factors subjects like job evaluation, wage policies, wage system, and wage incentive schemes.


It can be defined as an attempt to effect a reasonable reconciliation of individual and organizational interests. So, functions of procurement, development and compensation must be followed by integration. The function of integration relates to the problem of communication, informal organization, and trade unions.


Maintenance refers to sustaining and improving the conditions that have been established. This would thus include the above functions. However, it must be pointed out that it would be necessary to take care of the physical and mental well being of the employees.

To fulfill this objective, it is important that research must continue to every direction so that the function of maintenance is performed effectively. Maintaining aims at maintaining good working conditions for the employees. It includes the preparation and implementation of health schemes, safety systems etc.


Therefore, the role of HRM is very important in an organization. Personnel management is the key to the whole organization and it is related to all various activities of the management occurred in all the departments such as marketing, production, and finance, etc.

And, Human resource management concept involves a system to be followed in a business firm to recruit, select, hire, train, develop, and optimum utilization of human assets. Therefore, proper coordination of human efforts, effective utilization of human and other material resources is necessary.